Smart Contracts: Challenges & Limitations – Platforms & Frameworks


In the world of blockchain technology, smart contracts have emerged as a revolutionary concept that has the potential to transform various industries.

This guide will provide you with a comprehensive understanding of what smart contracts are, how they work, and their significance in the blockchain ecosystem. We will explore the key features, benefits, and real-world applications of smart contracts.

By the end of this guide, you will have a solid foundation of knowledge to navigate the exciting world of smart contracts in blockchain.

5. Challenges and Limitations of Smart Contracts

Legal and Regulatory Considerations

One of the major challenges of smart contracts is the lack of legal and regulatory frameworks. The legal enforceability of smart contracts varies across jurisdictions, and there are still uncertainties surrounding their validity in certain contexts. Additionally, smart contracts may not be suitable for complex or ambiguous legal agreements that require human interpretation.

Security and Vulnerabilities

Smart contracts are vulnerable to security risks and vulnerabilities. Coding errors or vulnerabilities in the smart contract code can be exploited by malicious actors, leading to financial losses or disruptions. It is crucial to ensure secure coding practices and conduct thorough code audits and security assessments to mitigate these risks.

Scalability and Performance

As blockchain networks grow in size and usage, scalability and performance become significant challenges for smart contracts. Currently, some blockchain platforms face limitations in terms of transaction throughput and processing speed, which can impact the execution of smart contracts. Scaling solutions, such as layer-two protocols and sharding, are being developed to address these challenges.

6. Smart Contract Platforms and Frameworks

Ethereum and Solidity

Ethereum is the most widely used platform for smart contracts, offering a robust ecosystem and infrastructure for decentralized applications. Solidity is the programming language used for developing smart contracts on the Ethereum platform. It is a statically-typed language that allows developers to define the behavior and logic of the smart contract.

Hyperledger Fabric

Hyperledger Fabric is a permissioned blockchain platform that enables the development of enterprise-grade smart contracts. It provides a modular architecture and allows organizations to customize their blockchain network to meet specific business requirements. Chaincode, written in Go or other supported languages, is used to develop smart contracts on Hyperledger Fabric.

R3 Corda

R3 Corda is a distributed ledger platform designed for businesses in the financial industry. It allows participants to transact directly and privately using smart contracts. Corda smart contracts are written in Kotlin or Java and are executed in a secure and deterministic manner.


EOSIO is a blockchain platform that aims to provide high-performance decentralized applications. It supports the development of smart contracts in various programming languages, including C++ and Rust. EOSIO focuses on scalability and throughput, making it suitable for applications that require fast and efficient execution of smart contracts.

In the next chapter, we explore the future for smart contracts with the Internet of Things, cross-chain challenges and A.I. as well as outlining the key differences between smart contacts and traditional contracts.

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